Natural Stone
  1. Why Does White Marble Turn Yellow?

    The problem of yellowed white marble is not uncommon. All over the world encountered marble that has become discolored yellow or brown. There are several reasons this color change will occur.


    In the above example with the home builder, the yellowing was a result of oxidation. Many white marble tiles contain naturally occurring deposits of iron. Iron is a mineral found in stone and can occur randomly throughout the stone. If iron is present in the marble tile, it will begin to oxidize when exposed to water or other oxidizers such as acids or household bleach. White marble tiles can remain on a floor for years without yellowing, then over time may slowly turn yellow and in severe cases may turn completely brown. This oxidation process is accelerated when the tile is saturated as with the flood in the above example. This process of oxidation is similar to the rusting of metal. If you expose a brand new nail to water and air it will rust and turn brown. The same process is occurring with the iron in the marble. If water and/or air is eliminated the iron will not oxidize. This is the reason certain white marble suddenly turns yellow. The process is difficult to reverse and replacement of the tile may be necessary. The following stain removal technique has proved successful in several cases. Before testing this procedure it is important to first determine if iron is the cause.

    Testing for Iron

    Before assuming the marble is yellowed due to iron be sure to consider possible causes #2 and #3 detailed below. If these procedures fail then testing for iron will be necessary.
    1. If a flood has occurred or excessive water was used, first check the water for iron. There are several inexpensive test kits available that can be used to check the iron content in water. Check with your local plumbing supply store or store carrying water softening supplies. If any amount of iron is detected, it is possible that iron has entered the stone through the water supply. To eliminate the iron there are chelating chemicals that can be added to the water to prevent the iron from staining. This is very important if the tile is being cleaned with this water.
    2. Whether or not the water contains iron, the tile itself should be checked for iron content. Remove one tile and have a testing lab analyze it for total iron. If there are spare tiles that have never been installed also have them tested. If iron is present naturally in this stone it will probably be detected in the spare tile. If the results indicate the presence of iron in the tile, the following testing should be done:
    3. Check the tile for moisture. A moisture meter is a useful instrument that can be employed to check the tile for moisture. If the tile contains moisture, it is very possible that iron is beginning to oxidize.

    Removing Iron Staining
    1. Prepare a poultice solution the consistency of peanut butter using water and the following chemicals: Sodium Hydro Sulfite and Sodium Metabisulfite. (These chemicals are available in a product called Iron-Out™ from your plumbing supply or home center.) Apply the poultice to the affected tile. Allow it to soak into the tile and keep wet for several hours. Do not allow the solution to dry. After several hours pick up excess solution with a wet vacuum and rinse thoroughly with water and a chelating agent such as EDTA. Be prepared to repolish the marble since these chemicals can cause etching.
    2. If the above procedure fails, prepare a poultice with diatomaceous earth and Iron Out™ (One part Iron Out™ to 5 parts diatomaceous earth.) Mix with water to create a thick paste and apply to a small area. Cover with plastic and allow it to sit covered for 24 hours. After 24 hours, remove the poultice and rinse the area with water and a chelating agent. If the stain is removed, the entire floor can then be treated. If the stain still remains, replacement is the only solution.
    3. Before the above procedure can be performed, it is important that the affected tiles be dry. If water or moisture are still present, oxidation of iron may continue.
    4. There are also some new chemicals that are available which contain Ammonium Thioglycolate which looks promising for removing surface iron oxidation. Check with several stone maintenance supply companies.
    5. The yellowing of white marble from oxidation is a common problem. New installations should be sealed with a good quality penetrating sealer (impregnator) which will help prevent oxidation of the iron by eliminating moisture. The above procedure has proven successful in some cases of iron staining. However, if the outlined test does not produce the desired results, I would recommend replacement of the affected tiles.


    As marble wears the highly polished surface begins to disappear. The wearing of this polish causes the surface to become rough become a magnet for dirt. If improper cleaners are used, this dirt will accumulate in the pores of the stone and will turn it yellow. It is surprising how often I have seen this condition on marble. Upon investigation in these cases I have frequently found dirty mops were being used. Mops used to clean the restrooms and/or kitchens were also used to clean the marble floors. Floors are mopped with strong cleaners or wax cleaner combinations or with no cleaners at all.


    If you suspect yellowing due to improper maintenance, the marble tile will have to be cleaned with an alkaline marble cleaner. I would suggest a heavy duty stone cleaner. Be sure the stone cleaner you buy is alkaline and not an acid since acid will dull the polish. Apply the cleaner to the marble and scrub with a soft brush. Be sure to rinse the floor thoroughly. It may be necessary to repeat this procedure several times to remove all the imbedded dirt. If after being cleaned the marble is dull I would suggest repolishing and an application of a good quality penetrating sealer (impregnator). If after several cleanings the yellowing is not removed then proceed to the next possible cause.3. WAX BUILD-UP OR COATINGS. Many marble floors are coated with waxes, acrylics, urethane or other coatings. Many of these coatings are not specifically designed for marble floors. Some of these coatings are of poor quality and the coatings themselves will begin to yellow. It is not uncommon for coatings to be applied in multiple coats. As the coatings build up it becomes soft and dirt is easily embedded in the soft layer. These coatings require frequent stripping which is often neglected. Cure: To remove yellowing due to a wax or coating buildup the marble will need to stripped with a commercial wax stripper. I would strongly suggest using a stripper manufactured by the same company as the floor wax or coating. This will help avoid incompatibility problems. Follow the directions on the stripper's label and be sure to rinse the floor thoroughly. These strippers often require the use of abrasive pads which can scratch and damage the marble surface. Before undertaking the entire project, perform a small test to determine results.
  1. How should I clean the mosaic?
    During grouting, use only water to clean the grout and tiles at the times indicated. For normal maintenance, you can keep the mosaic clean with acid or neutral detergents.
  2. How should I drill the mosaic?
    With a diamond tipped bit.
  1. What exactly is a Caesarstone Quartz Surfaces?
    Quartz is more than beautiful. It is also one of nature’s strongest minerals. Resistant to stains, scratches and cracks, quartz is impervious to heat and cold and to common household chemicals. Quartz surfaces combine form and function, allowing for the most diverse, durable and practical applications. Our surfaces retain the cool, tactile qualities of natural stone, while offering design freedom with almost unlimited application possibilities. Caesarstone surfaces are composed of up to 93% quartz, and are therefore designed to last. We combine quartz with numerous polymers and dashes of pigments in a unique Caesarstone-patented process, resulting in a range of durable and beautiful quartz surfaces.
  2. Is Caesarstone environmentally friendly?
    We regard the safeguarding of the environment as our highest priority. That’s why we are proud to have been awarded the stringent American Greenguard certification, proving our commitment to reducing our carbon footprint. We also set the benchmark when it comes to using recycled materials in our products, with a range of surfaces that incorporate up to 42% reclaimed quartz. Our Mosaici Mini Collection proves that beauty need not come at a cost to our planet.
  3. Who are Caesarstone Quartz Surfaces for?
    Caesarstone is for anyone who appreciates stunning design and outstanding quality. Whether you’re a professional interior designer, an architect, or simply keen to embark on a home design project, Caesarstone can help you create something truly unique.
  4. Where can I put Caesarstone?
    As our surfaces are so hygienic and durable, they are ideal as kitchen and bathroom countertops. Non-porous and safe, they are perfect in areas where food is being prepared. They can be used wherever your imagination allows - from wall panels to stairways, customized furniture to flooring, and our products are here for you to play with and adaptable enough to use anywhere you dare.
  1. What is GEOLUXE®?
    GEOLUXE® is a luxurious Pyrolithic Stone for surface covering.
  2. What is Pyrolithic Stone?
    Pyrolithic Stone is the new category of the world’s material that has noble beauty of natural marble and superior technical performance. It is 100% mineral-based material processed by Geomimicry™ forming technology.
  3. Who are Caesarstone Quartz Surfaces for?
    Caesarstone is for anyone who appreciates stunning design and outstanding quality. Whether you’re a professional interior designer, an architect, or simply keen to embark on a home design project, Caesarstone can help you create something truly unique.
  4. Where can I put Caesarstone?
    As our surfaces are so hygienic and durable, they are ideal as kitchen and bathroom countertops. Non-porous and safe, they are perfect in areas where food is being prepared. They can be used wherever your imagination allows - from wall panels to stairways, customized furniture to flooring, and our products are here for you to play with and adaptable enough to use anywhere you dare.
  5. What is the format range of GEOLUXE®?
    GEOLUXE® is available in 20-mm thickness sizing 1400x3200mm for both polished and honed surfaces with various profiling techniques available
  6. What application is GEOLUXE® suitable for?
    GEOLUXE® can be used in both indoor and outdoor for a variety of applications such as kitchen countertop, vanity top, firepit or fireplace, and all other surface coverings (e.g. floor, wall, step, staircase).
  7. Is the color and vein pattern of each GEOLUXE® production lot the same?
    Since our product mimics the creation of natural marble, each different lot will have a chance of color and pattern variation.
  8. Is GEOLUXE® safe for food preparation and food contact?
    Yes. GEOLUXE® is a foodgrade product, low-porous and prevent the growth of surface mold and bacteria, certified by NSF.
  9. Is GEOLUXE heat resistant?
    GEOLUXE® is heat resistant up to a maximum temperature of 300°C / 570°F without burning or scorching. However, to maintain the flawless look of your new luxury countertop, it is always best practice to give it a little extra tender loving care by using trivets with a soft padded underside. Objects exceeding the maximum temperature should never come into direct contact with GEOLUXE® to avoid risk of damage due to thermal shock.
  10. Is GEOLUXE resistant to stains?
    Referred to the ISO standard of determination of resistance to stains, GEOLUXE® passes Class 5. In other words, GEOLUXE® can be stained but the stain can be cleaned by warm water with mild detergent if it has been left for less than 24 hours. However, we recommend to remove the stain as soon as it has been found. If you want to know more, visit the section 'SUPPORT' and then 'CARE & MAINTAINANCE'. Please note that GEOLUXE® is stain resistance, NOT stain proof.
  11. How can I clean my Geoluxe?
    For your daily cleaning, you do not need any special product and method. Just simply use mild soap and warm water to maintain its shine. Normally, all stains can be removed if it has been left for less than 24 hours. It is however better to remove the stain as soon as it has been found. In some cases, a specific cleaning agent and method are recommended for difficult stain removal. Please visit the section 'SUPPORT' and then 'CARE & MAINTAINANCE' for further detail.
  12. Can I use GEOLUXE for outdoor kitchen countertop?
    Yes, you can. GEOLUXE® itself withstands the sunlight and UV not to be faded or degraded. However, please make sure it is installed properly as other materials also do.
  13. Can I use GEOLUXE for fireplace and firepit?
    Yes, you can use it for both indoor and outdoor. Please make sure that it requires proper installation as other materials also do.
  14. For outdoor application, has the property of GEOLUXE been changed when time goes by?
    Without resin, there is nothing to be worried about color fading and property degrading.
  1. Is leather a delicate material?
    No, leather has very high elasticity and resistance properties. Consider, for example, the fact that leather’s high performance has generally made it the material of choice for motorbike suits, saddles, the soles of footwear, and even for car drive belts up until the early 20th century.
  2. Can the leather surface get damaged over the years by use?
    The wear that leather flooring shows can be likened to that shown by high-quality wooden flooring. Leather is a “living” material: the more foot traffic passes over it, the less visible the scars, cuts and scratches on its surface actually become. This is why Nextep Leathers surfaces last a lifetime: as the years go by, they transform and are enriched by the scars of time, acquiring a prized ‘worn’ feel which increases their appeal.
  3. What rooms can leather tiles be used in?
    Nextep Leathers tiles are ideal floor and wall coverings. They are used in all rooms where wooden flooring might usually be laid for example in bedroom, family room, attic, entry, dining room, lounge, home theatre room, den (leather is warm and elegant). They also can be used wherever there is the need to create a cosy, quiet space as in spas, wellness centres, hotel rooms, suites (leather is soundproofing) and finally in places open to the public like boardrooms and executive offices, boutiques, exhibition stands (leather handles foot traffic very well).
  4. Can leather be laid around a swimming pool?
    Installing leather around a pool or in bathrooms is not recommended as possible contact with cleaners used to clean sanitary ware or pools can damage the colour. Contact with just water, on the other hand, will not damage the surface in any way: simply allow the leather to dry and restore its surface protection using the relevant maintenance product.
  5. How to lay leather tiles?
    The Nextep Leathers stoneware and leather tiles are laid just like any other ceramic tile: installation requires an adhesive suitable for porcelain stoneware, preferably of the elastic variety. Tiles are cut using a manual tile cutter, being careful to work on the underside of the tile. The leather is then cut with a suitable cutter, which needs to be very sharp. Tiles have been designed to be laid butt-jointed since the leather sticks over the edge of the backing by 5/10 mm, creating an expansion joint.
  6. Can leather be laid where underfloor heating is installed?
    Yes, the leather’s performance is not diminished (underfloor heating usually reaches a top temperature of 35 ̊C). The leather surface is in no danger of coming away from the backing when heated.
  7. How to clean the leather tiles?
    Daily cleaning of the leather flooring is carried out simply by vacuuming, using the attachment/ brushes used for wooden flooring, and/or a cloth dampened with water. For a deeper clean, there is a Nextep Leathers cleaning kit, comprising the “Cleaner” and the “Protector”, which allows to remove stains, if any, clean the floor deep down, nourish the leather and maintain its water repellency (recommended use: once a month for residential spaces and twice a month for public interiors). It is important to treat stains without delay.
  8. What substances can damage the leather surface?
    Harsh cleaners (such as ammonia, bleach or even pet urine) are harmful to the leather surface. On the other hand, laboratory tests have shown resistance to oil, sauce, wine and cola stains. The outcome, however, still depends on how quickly the stain is treated.
  9. If a sharp object is dropped, producing a deep cut in the leather, can the surface be repaired?
    No, the surface cannot be repaired. Nonetheless, a cut – even a deep one – will become less visible with time.
  10. If a cigarette is dropped on the leather flooring, will it damage it?
    The Nextep Leathers tile has a class 1 fire resistance rating and a cigarette is not enough to mark it. If contact with the source of heat is direct and persists, it might leave a dark stain, though cleaning cycles and the action of foot traffic will tend to make it less visible with time.
  11. How does leather react to moisture?
    Nextep leather undergoes an absorption test which reaches the value of 7 (on an international scale 0-10).
  12. Is the colour shade of the leather constant?
    Nextep Leathers surfaces are coloured based on a constant master sample. Nonetheless, one of the qualities of the leather flooring is precisely this naturally occurring mottling, which differs from one piece to the next.
  1. What is Technological Marble?
    As beautiful and sensual as natural marble, Technological Marble comes in a wide selection of colors, sizes, patterns, finishes and thicknesses. More versatile and rugged than natural marble, it’s perfect for both interior and exterior use. See it in kitchens, bathrooms, atriums and living areas, as well as façades, stairwells and statement walls.
  2. How is Technological Marble different from natural marble?
    Many professionals prefer Technological Marble to natural marble for its consistency. NEXSTONE is less heavy and has a more predictable colour than natural marble.
  3. How is NEXSTONE made?
    The process for creating Technological Marble is similar to that of making engineered stone. Craftsmen crush and grind natural marble then condense it using a technique known as “vibro-compression” that involves removing air, vibrating, compressing and heating the material.
  4. Is NEXSTONE made from natural stone or artificial materials?
    NEXSTONE Technological Marble is crafted with well over 90% pure marble. To create the spectacular range of colors, patterns and finishes, small quantities of resin and pigments are also used.
  5. Is Technological Marble weather-proof?
    The vacuum process behind NEXSTONE leaves it with zero porosity, so it resists both water and humidity well. NEXSTONE stands up well to stains and dirt: see cleaning recommendations for more details.
  6. Is NEXSTONE a hygienic surface?
    Technological Marble is non-porous and impermeable, meaning it resists germs, mould, dirt, and more. This is one of many reasons designers often choose it for kitchen and bathroom surfaces.
  7. Does Technological Marble lose its colour over time?
    Although the manufacturing process is different, Technological Marble has all the colour consistency of natural stone. You can expect the colour to stay unchanged during normal use.
  8. Can I polish NEXSTONE?
    Just like natural marble, Technological Marble responds well to occasional polishing to bring out its gloss and sheen.
  9. How should I maintain NEXSTONE surfaces?
    For large installations, specialist firms provide cleaning and maintenance services. For smaller installations, standard cleaning procedures will work well: cloths, mops, brooms and dust mops should suffice. When washing NEXSTONE floors or surfaces, always use a pH neutral detergent.